object-oriented C++ RTOS for microcontrollers
- fully preemptive
- round-robin and FIFO scheduling
- all basic primitives aim for maximum compatibility with POSIX, thread support library from C++11 and other established standards
- POSIX pthread implementation
- support for various mutex types (normal, error-checking, recursive) and mutex protocols (normal, priority inheritance, priority protection)
- software timers
- POSIX-style signals
- static design where it is possible and makes sense
- object-oriented design
- written in C++11
Currently supported targets for distortos are:
- ARMv6-M architecture (ARM Cortex-M0(+), ARM Cortex-M1): STM32F0
- ARMv7-M architecture (ARM Cortex-M3, ARM Cortex-M4(F), ARM Cortex-M7(F)): STM32F1, STM32F4
Motivation and goals
First of all – distortos doesn’t aim to be the smallest or the fastest RTOS available. It’s size and execution overhead are proportional to the features offered. This of course doesn’t mean that it uses hundreds of kilobytes of ROM and RAM or all available processing power! It uses “just enough” to implement its functionality in a portable and efficient way.
There are many RTOSes available in many flavours and for many platforms, so why another? There are many reasons, but generally distortos was born of dissatisfaction with all of these existing solutions… Distortos aims to have all good features and none of the broken ones.
The second important reason is the state of support for various C++ features in existing RTOSes, which usually varies from “non existent” to “explicitly disabled” (with minor exceptions of course).
Despite the popular belief, using C++ does not automatically lead to slow/bloated/incomprehensible/… code, which distortos will try to demonstrate. Source code of distortos is self-explanatory, simple and consists of short functions. This contrasts with “typical” RTOS source code in the form of extremely long functions with very complex control flow and heavy use of macros. And that would be the third reason – showing that source code of fully-featured RTOS can be simple, while still being efficient and feature-rich.
Last, but not the least, most of these existing RTOSes require the developer to state some values during configuration – max number of threads in the system, max number of supported priorities, etc. – this makes no sense at all, because a good, scalable design doesn’t need such values.
This project is licensed under the terms of Mozilla Public License Version 2.0. This relatively new license is something in between other popular open source licenses like GPL or BSD. Most of the questions are answered in the MPL 2.0 FAQ.
Configuration & building
To configure & build distortos you need:
- GNU Make build system;
- (optionally) tup (version 0.7.3 or above) build system;
- arm-none-eabi bleeding-edge-toolchain; alternatively you can try any other arm-none-eabi toolchain, but C++ exception handling code will increase the size of binary and incorrect newlib’s
_reentstruct configuration will dramatically increase RAM requirements (bleeding-edge-toolchain has the exceptions properly disabled and uses small variant of
_reentstruct – see here) – such combinations are not tested extensively;
- POSIX-compatible shell (e.g. Bash);
- GNU Coreutils or a set of compatible utilities;
- kconfig-frontends (especially mconf tool) to create or edit the configurations;
Make sure the tools are available in your system’s PATH environment variable.
To create or edit a configuration run
make menuconfig in the root of the project. You can either start from scratch or edit one of existing configurations (from
configurations/<board>/<variant> folder). When creating a new configuration make sure the name of created file is
DO NOT edit
distortosConfiguration.mk files manually! kconfig-frontends tools make sure that multiple pre- and post-conditions are satisfied, and these conditions can easily be violated by manual modifications of the configuration.
To select the configuration of your choice execute
make configure CONFIG_PATH=<path-to-distortosConfiguration.mk>, where
<path-to-distortosConfiguration.mk> is the relative path to selected
distortosConfiguration.mk file. This will create
selectedConfiguration.mk file which is needed to build distortos. If
<path-to-distortosConfiguration.mk> is in the form
configurations/<board>/<variant>, you can omit
configurations/ prefix –
make configure CONFIG_PATH=configurations/STM32F4DISCOVERY/test and
make configure CONFIG_PATH=STM32F4DISCOVERY/test will both select the same configuration. You can execute
make configure with no arguments if the selected
distortosConfiguration.mk file is in the main folder of the project – in that case
. is used as
To build just execute
make (if using GNU Make) or
tup (if using tup) command in the main directory of the project. If you need to see verbose compilation log, execute
make VERBOSE=1 (if using GNU Make) or
tup --verbose (if using tup).
To remove all generated files (tup database, build outputs, doxygen outputs and
selectedConfiguration.mk file) you can run
If you use tup and Linux
You need to set suid bit on your tup executable (
sudo chmod +s `which tup`) and you need to make sure that
user_allow_other option enabled.
If you use tup and Windows
Don’t use 64-bit tools (even if you have 64-bit system), as tup cannot currently handle 64-bit executables.
Tools for Windows
You can get GNU Make, Bash and GNU Coreutils by installing MSYS2 and executing
pacman -S make in the shell of this software distro – the binaries will be placed in
<installation path>\usr\bin folder. kconfig-frontends binaries for Windows can be found in Downloads > Tools > kconfig-frontends for Windows. tup and arm-none-eabi bleeding-edge-toolchain binaries for Windows are available from their main websites.